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The use of the term complex is often confused with the term complicated.In today's systems, this is the difference between myriad connecting "stovepipes" and effective "integrated" solutions.The coordinated system manifests properties not carried or dictated by individual parts.The organized aspect of this form of complexity vis-a-vis to other systems than the subject system can be said to "emerge," without any "guiding hand".Though the interactions of the parts in a "disorganized complexity" situation can be seen as largely random, the properties of the system as a whole can be understood by using probability and statistical methods.A prime example of disorganized complexity is a gas in a container, with the gas molecules as the parts.A complex system is thereby characterised by its inter-dependencies, whereas a complicated system is characterised by its layers.
Of course, most real-world systems, including planetary orbits, eventually become theoretically unpredictable even using Newtonian dynamics; as discovered by modern chaos theory.
Phenomena of 'disorganized complexity' are treated using probability theory and statistical mechanics, while 'organized complexity' deals with phenomena that escape such approaches and confront "dealing simultaneously with a sizable number of factors which are interrelated into an organic whole".
The approaches that embody concepts of systems, multiple elements, multiple relational regimes, and state spaces might be summarized as implying that complexity arises from the number of distinguishable relational regimes (and their associated state spaces) in a defined system.
In several scientific fields, "complexity" has a precise meaning: Complexity has always been a part of our environment, and therefore many scientific fields have dealt with complex systems and phenomena.
From one perspective, that which is somehow complex – displaying variation without being random – is most worthy of interest given the rewards found in the depths of exploration.